Isl Online Wikipedia Bibliography

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This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for web sources that are not characterized by another CS1 template.

Usage

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

For references with author credit

For references without author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote= }}
Vertical listPrerequisitesBrief instructions / notes
{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |author-link= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |date= |year= |editor-last= |editor-first= |editor-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |department= |website= |series= |publisher= |agency= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |script-title= |trans-title= |type= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archive-url= |archive-date= |dead-url= |access-date= |via= |quote= |ref= |postscript= |subscription= |registration= }} last last last2 editor-last editor-last editor2-last url, archive-date archive-url url url required required
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Choosing between {{Cite web}} and {{Cite news}}

Before 2014, editors had to decide whether to use {{Cite web}} or {{Cite news}} based on their features. In 2014, however, most of the differences between the two templates were eliminated.

As of 29 July 2016, {{Cite web}} and {{Cite news}} have the following differences:

But given the same set of valid parameters, their output is exactly the same:

Examples

    Doe, John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
      Doe, John (30 April 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
        Doe, John (2005-04-30). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
          Doe, John. "My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
            "My Favorite Things, Part II". Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
              "Digest of Rules". National Football League. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 

              Using format

                "List of psychotropic substances under international control"(PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 

                Foreign language and translated title

                  Joliet, François (30 April 2005). "Honi soit qui mal y pense" [Shame on those who think evil of it] (in French). Retrieved 13 March 2018. 

                  Using author-link

                    Doe, John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
                      Doe, John; Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim (30 April 2005). "Our Favourite Things". Encyclopaedia of Things. Open Publishing. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
                        "Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
                          "Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. 30 April 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
                            "Index of Sharp Things". April 30, 2005. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
                              "List of psychotropic substances under international control"(PDF) (in Greek). 2005-04-30. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 

                              Using "archive-url" and "archive-date" (and optionally "dead-url") for webpages that have been archived

                                "List of psychotropic substances under international control"(PDF). 2005-04-30. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2005-09-07. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
                                  "Interview with Maggie Downs". The Desert Sun. March 31, 2006. Archived from the original on April 26, 2006. 
                                    "London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)". The Weather Underground. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 

                                    Using quote

                                      "Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea". WebExhibits. 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  

                                      Parameters

                                      Syntax

                                      Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

                                      • parent
                                      • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
                                        • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
                                        • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
                                      Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

                                      By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.).

                                      COinS

                                      This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

                                      • Use not

                                      Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example , , etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup (italic font) or (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

                                      COinS metadata is created for these parameters

                                      • , , , , , , , ,
                                      • , , , ,
                                      • , , ,
                                      • , , ,
                                      • ,
                                      • ,
                                      • , ,
                                      • , ,
                                      • , , , , ,
                                      • , , , ,
                                      • , , ,
                                      • any of the named identifiers (, , , , etc)

                                      Deprecated

                                      None of the cs1|2 parameters is deprecated.

                                      Description

                                      Authors

                                      • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. ). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
                                        • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author.
                                        • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
                                        • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last, first, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each first requires a corresponding last). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surname, given, or author1 through author. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use .
                                        • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
                                        • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-link. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlink, or author1-link through author-link, or author1link through authorlink.
                                        • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to and when the list uses / parameters for the name list(s).
                                      • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
                                        • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in as described above
                                      • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
                                      • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
                                        • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
                                        • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-last, translator-first, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-first requires a corresponding translator-last). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translator-last, translator-first, or translator1 through translator.
                                        • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
                                        • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-link. Aliases: translator1-link through translator-link.
                                      • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
                                      • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
                                      • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

                                      Title

                                      (See also Help:Citation Style 1 §Titles and chapters.)

                                      • title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
                                        • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
                                        • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
                                      Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
                                      This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
                                      • website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work
                                      • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
                                      • language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. . The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.

                                      Date

                                      • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
                                      For approximate year, precede with " ", like this: .
                                      For no date, or "undated", add as
                                      • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
                                        1. The template uses , or the template is , or
                                        2. The format is YYYY-MM-DD.
                                        3. The citation requires a disambiguator.
                                      • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: or . Alias: origyear
                                      • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
                                        – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
                                        – as above for month day, year format
                                        – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
                                        – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
                                        – as above for month day, year format
                                        – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD

                                      Publisher

                                      • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
                                      • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. Alias: location
                                      • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, the location will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
                                      • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
                                      • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription parameters.

                                      Series

                                      • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

                                      In-source locations

                                      • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either or , but not both. Displays preceded by unless .
                                      • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either or , but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by unless . Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use or .
                                        • nopp: Set to , , or to suppress the or notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where or .
                                      • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by or . Use only one of , , or .
                                      Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

                                      URL

                                      • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. or . For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
                                        • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1]Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
                                        • archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page if the original URL is no longer available. Typically used to refer to services such as WebCite(see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive(see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by ) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
                                          • archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
                                          • dead-url: the default value of this optional parameter, if omitted, is . Equivalent values are or . When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set ; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting or suppresses display of the original URL (but is still required). Alias: deadurl.
                                        • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error-checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated. Alias: no-cat.
                                      • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
                                      URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. and will be supported by all browsers; however, , , , , and may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
                                      If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by . To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
                                      sp"'<>[]{|}
                                       %20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d
                                      Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

                                      Anchor

                                      Identifiers

                                      • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as to append NCJ122967 instead.

                                      These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. or .

                                      • arxiv: arXividentifier; for example: (before April 2007) or (April 2007 – December 2014) or (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
                                      • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available.
                                        • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: , , , , , , , , , ,
                                      • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example:
                                      • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733)
                                      • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341 )
                                      • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: . It is checked to ensure it begins with ().
                                        • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at https://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi-inactive-date
                                      • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: EISSN
                                      • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. Alias: HDL
                                      • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: . (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as . Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
                                      • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: . Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISMN
                                      • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: ISSN
                                      • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
                                      • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: will generate JSTOR3793107.
                                      • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
                                      • mr: Mathematical Reviews
                                      • oclc: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center
                                      • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
                                      • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
                                      • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. . Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
                                        • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
                                      • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
                                      • rfc: Request for Comments
                                      • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
                                      • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

                                      Quote

                                      • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation.

                                      Editors

                                      • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
                                        • editor: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last). This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
                                        • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
                                        • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-last, editor-first (Aliases: editor-last, editor-surname or editor-surname; editor-first, editor-given or editor-given; editor). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use .
                                      • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
                                      • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-link (alias editor-link).
                                      • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to and when the list uses / parameters for the name list(s)
                                      • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
                                      • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in , as described above
                                      • editors: Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
                                      Display:
                                      Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
                                      If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
                                      If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

                                      Laysummary

                                      • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
                                        • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
                                        • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

                                      Display options

                                      • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For , element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For , element separator is a comma (); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
                                      • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by , or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
                                      • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
                                      • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
                                      • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( ) when set to , , or . Example:
                                      • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (); for no terminating punctuation, specify – leaving empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

                                      Subscription or registration required

                                      Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation.

                                      Four access levels can be used:

                                      As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

                                      Access level of

                                      Links inserted with are expected to be free to read by default. If not, editors can use one of

                                        to indicate the relevant access restriction.

                                        Access level of identifiers

                                        Links inserted by identifiers such as are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use (in the case of ) to indicate the relevant access level. The following identifiers are supported:

                                        • with
                                        • with
                                        • with
                                        • with
                                        • with
                                        • with

                                        Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for , , , , and .

                                        Ambiguous access parameters

                                        The parameters and can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use and instead, when the restriction applies to . If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

                                        These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

                                        • registration: For online sources that require registration, set (or , or ); superseded by subscription if both are set.
                                        • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set (or , or ); supersedes registration if both are set.

                                        Setting or to any value other than , , or will generate an error message.

                                        TemplateData

                                        1. ^Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
                                        1. ^ abAccess-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

                                        For the policy page about citing Wikipedia within Wikipedia articles, please see WP:CIRCULAR.

                                        For the citation-generation tool to create a citation from any article, please see Special:CiteThisPage

                                        Caution is advised when using Wikipedia as a source. In many academic institutions, references to Wikipedia, along with most encyclopedias, are unacceptable for research papers. This does not mean that Wikipedia material should be used without citation: plagiarism of Wikipedia material is also academically unacceptable.
                                        Wikipedia has a tool to generate citations for particular articles. For the cite tool, see Special:Cite, or follow the "Cite this page" link in the toolbox on the left of the page in the article you wish to cite.

                                        We advise special caution when using Wikipedia as a source for research projects. Normal academic usage of Wikipedia and other encyclopedias is for getting the general facts of a problem and to gather keywords, references and bibliographical pointers, but not as a source in itself. Remember that Wikipedia is a wiki. Anyone in the world can edit an article, deleting accurate information or adding false information, which the reader may not recognize. Thus, you probably shouldn't be citing Wikipedia. This is good advice for all tertiary sources such as encyclopedias, which are designed to introduce readers to a topic, not to be the final point of reference. Wikipedia, like other encyclopedias, provides overviews of a topic and indicates sources of more extensive information. See researching with Wikipedia and academic use of Wikipedia for more information.

                                        If you do decide to cite Wikipedia, remember that its articles are constantly changing: cite exact time, date, and the article version you are using. Page history and toolbox features "cite this article" and "permanent link" are very useful for finding that information.

                                        If you decide to quote or paraphrase Wikipedia text (despite all the warnings above applying to the information in Wikipedia), then you must cite Wikipedia appropriately; otherwise you plagiarise.

                                        Problems with citing Wikipedia

                                        As with any source, especially one of unknown authorship, you should be wary and independently verify the accuracy of Wikipedia information if possible. For many purposes, but particularly in academe, Wikipedia may not be an acceptable source;[1] indeed, some professors and teachers may reject Wikipedia-sourced material completely.[2] This is especially true when it is used without corroboration. Most educators and professionals do not consider it appropriate to use tertiary sources such as encyclopedias as a sole source for any information—citing an encyclopedia as an important reference in footnotes or bibliographies may result in censure or a failing grade. However, much of the content on Wikipedia is itself referenced, so an alternative is to cite the reliable source rather than the article itself.

                                        A wiki is an unusual medium, and as such doesn't conform well to the usual book-citation formats. Wiki is not paper, so you will need to use an electronic-citation format instead. The exact format will depend upon the citation guide that you are following, but here are a few general principles to consider:

                                        • A special citation tool is available to assist you. On the left of every article, there is a "Cite this page" link. Clicking it will bring you to a listing of relevant information, as well as automatically generated citations in several styles. Note that it is still your responsibility to ensure the citation meets all requirements.
                                        • You should not cite any particular author or authors for a Wikipedia article, in general. Wikipedia is collaboratively written. However, if you do need to find the list of authors of a particular article, you can check the Page history. Authors are listed only by IP address or chosen user name; you normally cannot verify and often cannot even guess at their identities.
                                        • Your citation should normally list both the article title and Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, much as you would for an article in a paper publication. Every article should be a separate citation.
                                        • Most citation styles will likely require the full article URL. You can click "Permanent link" in the toolbox at the left of this page. This lets the URL include a unique identifier such that you can tie your reference back to the exact version of the article you are referencing. It may or may not be desirable to adopt this approach, depending upon the context of your reference. This lets you show what you saw and ignore any changes made after you accessed the page. If greater brevity is desired, you can use the regular URL, or optionally just the site URL (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/ for an English article), because an article URL can be inferred from an article title.
                                        • The citation style may request the full date and time of the article revision you are using. If you use the permanent link feature, this may not be necessary. However, the date and time of the last revision can be found at the bottom of every page (above the copyright notice).

                                        Examples of alternatives to citing Wikipedia

                                        Some Wikipedia articles (list) have been published in peer reviewed academic literature. In that case, it is possible to cite the published article. eg:

                                        Examples of how to cite Wikipedia

                                        Wikipedia has a tool to generate citations for particular articles. For the cite tool, see Special:Cite, or follow the "Cite this page" link in the toolbox on the left of the page in the article you wish to cite.

                                        The following examples assume you are citing the Wikipedia article on Plagiarism, using the version that was submitted on July 22, 2004, at 10:55 UTC, and that you retrieved the article on August 10, 2004, except as otherwise noted.

                                        APA style

                                        Citation in APA style, as recommended by the American Psychological Association: [3]

                                        • Plagiarism. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism[4]

                                        Note that in APA 5th Edition style, the following rules apply for the reference:

                                        • For reference books, which includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, and glossaries, the book title is preceded by the word In. It is not italicized, but the book title following it is.
                                        • The book title appears in sentence case. You capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.
                                        • The URL must go to the exact page that you reference.
                                        • No punctuation follows the URL.
                                        • The term or article title appears in the author position. Use sentence case for multiple-word terms or titles, where you capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.

                                        The proper in-text citation is ("Plagiarism," 2004) for a paraphrased passage or ("Plagiarism," 2004, para. #) if you directly quote the material. Note that para. # represents the paragraph number in the page where the information appears. If there are multiple headings on the page, it is also acceptable to place the subheading and then a paragraph number within that heading.

                                        For example, proper in-text citation for a direct quote of fewer than 40 words is:

                                        "Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgment of the original work" ("Plagiarism," 2004, "Definition," para. 1).

                                        If the quoted material is more than 40 words, use the block quote format instead.

                                        As another example, the proper in-text citation for a paraphrased passage is:

                                        Plagiarism is stealing the works of others ("Plagiarism," 2004).

                                        APA Style requires that you provide a separate reference entry for each term you are citing in your paper because 1) you must provide a URL for each term that goes directly to the term, and 2) you must provide the publication date for each term separately. However, if you are discussing the "online encyclopedia" itself, not a term in the encyclopedia, you might need to reference the site itself. The proper citation of Wikipedia, the site, as referenced in APA 5th Edition Style is:

                                        • Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from https://www.wikipedia.org

                                        The in-text citation formation would be (Wikipedia, 2004).

                                        MLA style

                                        Citation in MLA style, as recommended by the Modern Language Association, 8th edition:

                                        • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 July 2004. Web. 10 Aug. 2004, en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350

                                        The eighth edition published in 2016 calls for urls to omit “http://” or “https://”.

                                        Note that MLA style calls for both the date of publication (or its latest update) and the date on which the information was retrieved.

                                        Be sure to double check the exact syntax your institution requires.

                                        For citation of Wikipedia as a site, use:

                                        • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 July 2004. Web. 10 Aug. 2004.

                                        MHRA style

                                        Citation in MHRA style, as recommended by the Modern Humanities Research Association:

                                        • Wikipedia contributors, 'Plagiarism', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350> [accessed 10 August 2004]

                                        Chicago style

                                        Citation in Chicago style:

                                        • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism," (accessed August 10, 2004), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350

                                        Note that the Chicago Manual of Style states that "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies."

                                        CBE/CSE Style

                                        Citation in CBE/CSE style, as recommended by the Council of Science Editors:

                                        • Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2004 Jul 22, 10:55 UTC [cited 2004 Aug 10]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350.

                                        Turabian style

                                        The following are examples of how to cite Wikipedia articles according to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). ISBN 0226816265 (cloth), ISBN 0226816273 (paper).

                                        Note on Turabian style: Please understand that Turabian does not have rules that cover anything like Wikipedia. These examples are based on "reading between the lines" and assimilating rules from various not-so-similar cases that Turabian does cover. If the party to which you are submitting your paper is particularly strict, you might want to find out if they have their own adaptation of Turabian that would apply in this case. Alternately, you could always consult with the party before the deadline to make sure it's acceptable.

                                        Notes

                                        1"Plagiarism," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia; (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC) [encyclopedia on-line]; available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism; Internet; retrieved 10 August 2004.

                                        2Wikipedia contributors, "Marketing."Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing (Accessed August 10, 2004)

                                        Bibliography

                                        Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered Species. Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004.

                                        (According to Turabian 6th edition, ¶9.8, for entries in the bibliography, "the first line of each entry is flush left, and any run over lines are indented five spaces". This presentation does not follow that rule.)

                                        Parenthetical reference

                                        ("Plagiarism," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia)

                                        or

                                        (Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism")

                                        Reference list

                                        Plagiarism. 22 July 2003, 10:55 UTC. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism. Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004.

                                        (Indenting is like that of the bibliography.)

                                        Legal citation styles

                                        The Harvard Journal of Law & Technology has adopted the following format for citations to articles in Wikipedia:

                                        • [Signal] Wikipedia, [article], https://en.wikipedia/wiki/[article] [(optional other parenthetical)] (as of [date], [time] GMT).

                                        Here is an example:

                                        • See Wikipedia, Bluebook, https://en.wikipedia/wiki/Bluebook (describing history and application of the Bluebook) (as of Mar. 21, 2006, 20:50 GMT).

                                        This format reflects Rule 18.2 of the 18th and 19th edition of the Bluebook, but uses "as of" rather than "last updated"/"last visited" in the date parenthetical. This change allows specification of the exact version of the article to which the author is referring.

                                        The date and time used should correspond exactly to the latest version listed in the article's Wikipedia history page that states the proposition for which you are citing it. Use of GMT conforms to the timestamp format used in those history entries (e.g., use 24-hour notation to avoid AM/PM).

                                        BibTeX entry

                                        @misc{wiki:###,author="Wikipedia contributors",title="Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",year="2004",url="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350",note="[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"}

                                        When using LaTeX, the "url" package can be used to improve web address formatting by putting "" somewhere in the LaTeX source preamble, then using this syntax:

                                        @misc{ wiki:###, author = "Wikipedia contributors", title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia", year = "2004", url = "\url{https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350}", note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]" }

                                        AMA style

                                        Citation in AMA style, as recommended by the American Medical Association: [5]

                                        See also

                                        Reference resources
                                        Disclaimers
                                        Related essays

                                        References

                                        External links

                                        1. ^Bould, Dylan M., et al., References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature, 2014, British Medical Journal, 6 March 2014, 348 DOI, online from BMJ
                                        2. ^"Anthropology 333 syllabus from American River College"(PDF). Retrieved 2006-02-07.  [dead link]
                                        3. ^"APA Style Help". APA Style. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
                                        4. ^McAdoo, Timothy. "How to Cite Wikipedia in APA Style". APA Style. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
                                        5. ^"AMA Style Guide". University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
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