Alternative Communication Systems During Disasters Essayscorer

                                                                                                                                                File: BDDG


The minutes of the meetings of the Board constitute the written record of Board actions.
The Treasurer records in the minutes of each meeting all actions taken by the Board.
Minutes need only reflect the general subject matter of discussion in executive sessions.

Minutes shall specify: the nature of the meeting (regular or special), time, place,
members present, approval of minutes of the preceding meeting or meetings; complete
record of official actions taken by the Board relative to the Superintendent’s
recommendations, communications and all business transacted; items of significant
information bearing on action; and a record of adjournment.

The Treasurer shall include the motion, the name of the member making the motion and
the name of the member seconding the motion and record the vote of each member

A complete and accurate set of minutes shall be prepared and become a regular part of
the monthly agenda. The Treasurer must make draft minutes available for public
inspection. The minutes shall be signed by the President and attested to by the
Treasurer, following approval of the minutes by the Board at the next meeting.

The official minutes shall be bound and kept in the office of the Treasurer, who shall,
after they have been approved by the Board, make them available to interested
citizens. Copies are made available at cost, during normal office hours.


satellites sit at an altitude of about 22,000 miles (35,000 km); a noticeable delay is present whilemaking a phone call or using data services due to the large distances from their users. Theamount of bandwidth available on these systems is substantially higher than that of theLowEarth Orbit(LEO) systems; all three active systems provide portable satellite Internet usinglaptop-sized terminals with speeds ranging from 60 kbits to 512 kbits per second (Kbps).

Low Earth orbit

LEOtelephonesutilize LEO (lowEarthorbit)satellitetechnology.The advantages include providingworldwidewireless coverage with no gaps. LEO satellites orbit the earth in highspeed,lowaltitudeorbits with an orbital time of 70–100minutes, an altitude of 640 to 1120kilometers (400 to 700 miles), and provide coverage cells of about (at a 100-minute orbital period) 2800 km in radius (about 1740 mi). Since the satellites are notgeosynchronous,theymust fly complete orbits. At least one satellite must have line-of-sight to every coverage area atall times to guarantee complete coverage. Depending on the positions of both the satellite andterrestrial user, a usable pass of an individual LEO satellite will typically last 4–15 minutes onaverage; thus, a constellation of satellites is required to maintain coverage (as is done withIridium, Globalstar,GPS, and others).

Cost of a satellite phone

Satphones on displayWhile it is possible to obtain used handsets for the Thuraya, Iridium, and Globalstarnetworks for approximately US$200, the newest handsets are still quite expensive. The Iridium 9505A, although released in 2001, still sold in March 2010 for well over$1,000 USD new. Since satellite phones are purpose-built for one particular networkand cannot be switched to other networks, the price of handsets varies with theperformance of the network. If a satellite phone provider encounters trouble with itsnetwork the handset prices will fall, then increase once new satellites are launched.Similarly, handset prices will increase when calling rates are reduced.

Use in disaster response

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